IoST: The Internet of Spying Things

Thinking of buying that Skype-enabled smart TV? Bad move bud, you’re inviting all sorts of hackers, spy agencies, feds, and other undesirables directly into your living room.

Once upon a time in 2003, the FBI sought permission to wiretap an OnStar-like device in a car… except it wasn’t wiretapping communications, it was turning the device into an always-on microphone that got piped directly to FBI HQ. And they didn’t seek permission, they coerced the manufacturer into helping them, concluded their surveillance, then asked the court later. Oops.

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A recent report, released by “the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University” said:

A plethora of networked sensors are now embedded in everyday objects. These are prime mechanisms for surveillance: alternative vectors for information-gathering that could more than fill many of the gaps left behind by sources that have gone dark – so much so that they raise troubling questions about how exposed to eavesdropping the general public is poised to become.

The report itself is a very interesting read, and surprisingly unbiased; I’d recommend reading the full thing if you have 20 mins to spare. 

In short: who cares if you’re using Signal if your TV can just listen in on your conversation? Why bother with PGP if your Wi-Fi enabled anytime-vlogging necklace can just read your emails off your screen? Is there a point to avoiding Windows 10 if your voice-activated Twitter-enabled fridge is reporting everything you do in your kitchen anyway? Ignoring, for a second, that The Greatest Surveillance Tool of All Time rarely leaves you pocket: a microphone, two cameras, a GPS chip, and even an always-on data connection! 

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Our glorious government’s been getting assblasted by the recent we-do-encryption-toono-backdoors-we-swear corporate meme, but that’s sadly about to become irrelevant as IoT becomes more prevalent. The Xbox One was a fairly good test of how the public would react to inserting a surveillance device directly into their living room (I still get creeped out when I enter a room and see that thing looking back at me), and according to MS, the “vast majority” of people who bought an Xbone with a Kinect still use it (although, MS is “decommissioning” certain Kinect features like gesture control for menus, so I’d read the preceding statement as “left it plugged in but don’t really use it”). As Wi-Fi enabled everything becomes the new cool thing to have, we’ll keep seeing more and more stories about exploits in poorly-written firmware. Then one day, some whistleblower will drop a story about some agency having recorded everything you said in your livingroom over the last decade and everyone will be all surprised all over again.

toaster

Sounds bleak right? There are a few things you can do though:

  • Try to avoid IoT-esque devices for “nifty” features. Do you really need to control your house temperature from your phone, at the expense of your house “occupancy metadata” being available?
  • If you’re using a device in a LAN context, don’t let it talk to the outside world. If you like turning on your blender with a button in your bathroom, that’s cool. But no, the blender does not need 24/7 internet connectivity to “check for updates”. Least amount of access necessary is good secsec anyway.
  • If your device needs to talk to someone external, firewall it down to just the people it should be talking to (you do have a hardware firewall at the edge of your network, right?). If your toilet posts to Twitter, there’s no reason for it to be talking to anyone but Twitter.
  • If you need to connect to your device from outside your LAN, do yourself a favor and set up a VPN server on your network. Exposing these IoT devices to the outside world is a terrible, terrible idea considering that they often offer no authentication past a basic username and password, and are often hilariously insecure. Personally, I make a single RPi available to the outside world, which I OpenVPN to (using PKI) (this is a one-button connection on my phone), then I access all internal services from there.
  • Unplug your Xbone Kinect. Plug it in when you’re using it. And for the love of god, rip the OnStar module out of your car.

Self-host Everything

I firmly believe that “cloud services” will be the downfall of the internet: instead of a free and open network, where anyone can provide services, we’re moving towards a few monolithic networks providing “free” services (in exchange for selling your data to advertisers, and showing you advertisements) and stomping out all smaller competition, Walmart-style.

cloud

There are several issues with depending on cloud service providers:

You are at the mercy of the service provider. What would happen if, say, Facebook chose to shut down services in your country tomorrow? How many people would you lose touch with? How many photos and messages would you lose forever? Better yet, how fucked would you be if Gmail disappeared?

Your data is most likely being vacuumed up by various nation-state attackers. As the Snowden slides revealed, virtually all major cloud service providers are providing your personal data directly to the NSA — however, it would be foolish to assume that only the NSA has your data. Because these cloud service providers are international, your data is most likely also provided to intelligence agencies in virtually all developed countries, from China to Russia to Israel. Why? Because these providers “must follow the law”, and operating in many countries means following the law in many countries.

Cloud services are a tempting target for attackers. Imagine if you could… oh I dunno, find nude pictures of many celebrities in a single datastore. If you had the skills, wouldn’t that be a juicy target? That being said, cloud services are usually fairly secure, but slip-ups still happen.

All “free” cloud services sell your data to advertising firms. There’s probably some sweatshop worker reading your emails right now to figure out whether to sell your male enhancement pills or sunglasses. I hope you’re not surprised, as you agreed to it in the EULA you accepted — how else did you think these services would get paid for? Interestingly, Google is mostly likely the least evil of the providers in this regard, because they do their own advertising. So at least your data stays with one company.

I bet you have a solution, LG. 

Of course. The answer is to self-host everything.

Running your own services lets your keep control of your data, and offers enhanced privacy and security. While running services requires a certain amount of technical competence, it’s far more straightforward (and cheaper) than many people assume. Find yourself a nice VPS host (DigitalOcean and Linode are good) or a host for dedicated servers (I’ve had good experiences with Online.net, Hetzner, and OVH), find some tutorials, pay a few bucks per month, build services, break services, fix services. Find a few technically-able friends to give you a hand, or a few privacy-aware friends to split the cost with. Some examples:

  • Email: Postfix and Dovecot, optionally Roundcube (webmail)
  • Chat: Prosody (XMPP)
  • Files: OwnCloud
  • Documentation: Mediawiki
  • Blog: WordPress
  • Search Engines: Searx
  • <a href="https://github this content.com/Kickball/awesome-selfhosted/blob/master/README.md” target=”_blank”>More

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Won’t this be horrendously expensive?
For a few users, you can run all of the above on a $5/month DigitalOcean VPS.

Won’t things break?
Absolutely. But learning how to fix things when they break is what makes you a good sysadmin. Backup often, backup well.

Won’t it be inconvenient?
Absolutely. But that’s the whole appeal of cloud service providers: convenience, in exchange for your personal data. At some point, you’ll realize it’s just not worth it.

Will I be secure against hackers/nation-state attackers?
Kinda. You’ll be safe from certain types of attacks: the NSA storing and analyzing every email you send via Gmail, for instance. If you’re specifically targeted, no, you’ll get #rekt anyway via the attacker compromising/compelling your hosting provider, putting malware on your home computer, or being beaten with a wrench until you give up your encryption keys. But self-hosting keeps your data out of the massive, easy-to-access pools of personal data on cloud services — it makes it more difficult for attackers to get at your data, and making attacker’s jobs more difficult is something we should all strive to do.

Humor me: try it out today. Get a domain name, fire up a $5 VPS on DigitalOcean, find an inital server setup and securing your server guides, then follow the ISPmail tutorial and set up email services (DigitalOcean and Linode have excellent knowledge bases of tutorials: see 1 and 2). Test it out, find features you want, find tutorials to implement them. Do something dumb, break something, then figure out how to fix it. Find some friends, work together, and free yourself of the cloud service botnet.

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Ad-blocking: The new “stealing”

Since the dawn of filesharing, our corporate overlords have been shouting about how media piracy is “stealing“. Thankfully, the idea of making a digital copy being equivalent to theft has been beaten down by countless arguments and dissertations, to the point where courts have, in certain cases, prohibited copyright holders from using the words “piracy”, “theft”, and “stealing” in jury trials. However, there is a new group of people complaining about “stealing” — websites that earn their revenue through ads.

nobody pirates games anymore though so lol

Blocking ads is a little different than piracy. Viewing a web page actively consumes resources: bandwidth, which the site pays for. This amount is fairly negligible, however. Consider that my $30/month Hetzner server is allotted 20TB of upload, and that the homepage of this blog is roughly a megabyte, each page load costs me about $0.0000015 . Not really an amount worth crying about.

The anti-ad-blockers’ primary argument is usually something like, “We are content creators! Ads are the only way we make money! If you block our ads, the internet will never have any new content ever again!” Let’s pretend for a second that 75% of the “creative content” blogs and websites aren’t just regurgitated bullshit served for the sole purpose of getting ad views. Bad news: I’ve seen better content generated by the internet hate machine and even in Reddit comments than any ad-supported blog. We’re talking about unpaid, pseudo-anonymous users of these communities creating better content than anyone paid to do so.

But LG, those communities wouldn’t exist without ads!
I can run a Reddit clone on a $2 VPS. Good creative content spreads between all of the communities. In other words, the content would’ve still been created even if these communities didn’t exist, or were more fragmented.

So why block ads? It’s fairly simple: they’re annoying. Ads have evolved from being simple text ads, to flashing and jumping, to literally screaming the name of a product in a background window. Fuck you and your content, I don’t want to put up with that shit. If you included a few affiliate links or something in your blog posts, I wouldn’t mind, but because of the behaviour of the ad industry, I have no choice but to go full nuclear and block everything resembling an ad.

even billy blocks ads, despite his profession

The idea of “acceptable advertisements” has been a topic of debate recently, but I’m not interested. I simply cannot trust a company to accept money to decide which ads to show me: it’s basically bribery. Nor am I going to trust a some democratic process: Reddit is a prime example of democracy failing online doctor prescription for viagra. No, fuck advertisements alltogether, you people will have to find better ways to fund your activities.

So let’s talk alternatives. “Donation” mechanisms have been around approximately forever, and are the sole source of revenue for all sorts of sites (private trackers are a notable example). A somewhat more complicated idea is Flattr: basically, users pay a monthly donation of their choosing that’s automatically distributed between the sites they clicked a “flattr” button on. But that’s the essential idea: users contributing directly to your site, rather than some evil network in the middle. I bet if I contributed a single penny to every website I’ve ever visited, I would’ve given 90% of those websites more revenue than they ever earned by showing me ads.

pls gib mony

Anyways, back to the original point: is blocking ads “stealing”? Kinda, like copyright infringement is kinda stealing, but it doesn’t matter. In short, advertising is basically getting #rekt by ad blockers, there’s going to be an all out war soon, and advertisers will lose. If you run a site supported by ads, now’s the time to get out and find a donation-based alternative. And if you can’t sustain your site on donations… I’m sorry, but your site is probably clickbait shit that nobody cares about, and the net would be better off if you just left.